Over the years, Nigerian school administrators, especially, the lslamiyyah schools had paid Lip services to the proper keeping of records. All these schools do is simply teach and graduate students. However as observed by NTI, (2000:12) in 1964, a headmaster of one primary school in our neighboring Bauchi State was faced with one serious experience. A form containing many questionnaires about one of the old pupils of the school who was nominated to be appointed as the chairman of the Federal Public Service Commissioner was given to him to complete. The pupil graduated many years before the headmaster even went to primary school. Therefore, the headmaster did not know the man personally and did not know what to write about him.
The only solution available to the headmaster was to turn to the school records. The school records showed the year the pupil was admitted, the year he passed out, the records of his good academic performance, records of annual prizes given to the pupil among others.
It was these records that helped the headmaster to correctly and accurately filled the form that assisted the person to be successfully appointed.
DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
School records keeping: This concept according to NTI (2000:12) is the history of the school kept systematically. This means that the systematic growth of the school at various points in time need to be thoroughly recorded and kept by school administrators. it is the authentic register of instruments of officials accounts of transaction or accurance which are preserved in the schools office (Olanrewaju 200S).
Aleiyideino SC et al (202) defined record as a written statement about a happening. School record keeping according to these scholars are records that give a lot of information about the school that will enable the authority to take decisions and asses the progress of the school. Head of School shall refer to both head teacher and principal.
Student: It shall be used to refer to both pupils and students. These records according to Dibu-Ojerinde,00 and Tukur(ed) (2005:21) classified school records into (a) Statutory Records (b) Academic Records (c) Finance Records (d) Staff Record(e) General Records.
Also linking Muslim schools to the category of voluntary agencies interested in educational development, Eke, et al (2000:46) explained that the Izalatil bid’a Wa Iqamatis Sunnah group, the Jama’atu Nasrul Islam, is the Islamic Trust of Nigeria (ITN) among others have contributed immensely not only to the development of education but also to proper school records keeping in Nigeria. Here cognitive and effective domains are highly exhibited unlike public schools that deal with only cognitive domain.
It is in light of the above that we are going to discuss the classification of school records as listed by Dibu-Ojerinde 0.0 and Tukur H.as follows:
A). STATUTORY RECORDS
1. ADMISSION REGISTER
This is a register of admission, progress and withdrawal of students, it should contain the following particulars about the admitted students.
(a) Admission number (b) Name in full (c) Sex (d) Name and address of parent/guardians (e) Day Month and year of birth (f) Previous school attended (g) Last class read (h) Day, month, class, of admission (i) Records of progress (j) date of leaving school (k) Reason for leaving etc (1) Transfer certificate number.
All the entries should be hand-written and corrections should be made in such a way that the original entry and the correction are both clearly distinguished. It should be kept for not less than fifteen (15) years from the date of last entry.
2. ATTENDANCE REGISTER.
This is register that is kept for each class containing the particulars in respect of every student until such student leaves the school. Students’ regular attendance or otherwise can be traced here easily, it should contain (a) Admission number (b) Name in full, sure name first etc.
3. LOG BOOK.
This book contains records of important events happening in the school. The history of the school can be compiled from this record. It should be kept under lock and key.
4. VISITORS BOOK
This is a record showing names, address of all important visitors to the school as well as the purpose of such visit.
5. PUNISHMENT BOOK
The education law permits only the head of school or his representative to inflict corporal punishment on erring students. A proper reoord is kept containing (a) The name of the offender (b) The date of such punishment (c) The nature of offence (d) the person who administered the punishment etc.
This record helps to protect the teachers against aggrieved parents. It can serve as witness for the school to trace the trend of such students.
6. EDUCATION LAW
The school should keep Education Law with its regulations to assist the school in operating in line with such regulations.
7 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION
Each school must have a copy of the National policy on Education.
8, INSPECTION REPORT FILE
This is a record containing the reports of visits to the school by inspectors as it helps during follow-up inspections.
9. STAFF DUTY BOOK.
This is a record that shows a brief report of happenings in the school on daily basis. In secondary schools, the perfects also write daily report in prefect duty book.
10. MINUTES OF MEETING BOOK
There should be a hard cover book to be used for recording of minutes of meeting for easy reference to the decisions taken in meetings.
B). ACADEMIC RECORD
i) Approved copy of syllabus
ii) Academic Syllabus files
1. APPROVED SYLLABUS:
Academic programme of institutions are based on approved syllabus of the course to be run, it could be primary school syllabus, NTI syllabus for teachers colleges, WAEC/NECO syllabus etc. the school need a syllabus to follow.
2. SCHEME OF WORK
This is the aspect that breakdown the syllabus into teaching units. It is broken down into topics, performance objectives, etc. lit has to be kept by every teacher to be marked and endorsed by the headmaster.
3. RECORD OF WORK BOOK
This aspect further break down the scheme of work into weekly records of what the teacher has taught. It should be kept by teachers and cheeked and endorsed by the headmaster.
4. LESSON NOTE BOOK
One may call it lesson plan, it is like the site plan for the architect. It is prepared so that you follow it without forgetting a process. it reduces your energy of remembering the next step to do while teaching. It should contain topic, date, time of the day, duration of the lesson, age, sex, and class. Others includes: aims and objective, previous knowledge introduction, presentation evaluation and conclusion.
5. MARKS BOOKS
This is used in compiling continues assessment (CA) record. It is used to build up CA as it is either on weekly, fortnightly or monthly as the case may be.
6. CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT DOSSIER/REPORT SHEET
Schools used C.A dossier for examination records for every student. Two copies are needed for a student, one for the school and another one for the student. It should contain cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of the student.
7. SCHOOL TIME TABLE
This shows the daily activities of the school, class by class, period by period and the names of teachers handling them. It sums up the number of period allocated to a subject and the number of subjects arid periods taught by a teacher in a week.
8. LESSON ATTENDANCE REGISTER
It is kept by the class captain of each subject to be signed at the end of the period by teachers. It can cheek teachers who do not go to classes as and when due
9. TRANSFER CERTIFICATE
This is in a booklet form issued to students who leave the school before getting to the terminal class. It helps both the school releasing the students and the schools receiving students.
10. LEAVING CERTIFICATE
Unclaimed certificates testimonials etc should be kept under key and luck
11. FILES FOR ACADEMIC RECORDS OF DIFFERENT SUBJECT MATTERS NEED TO BE KEPT
C). FINANCE RECORD
The school needs account records such as:
i. Salary and payment voucher:- these are kept in labeled files to show salary payment and other payments made in the school.
it School fees register:- It is kept to give the financial transactions in the school. It gives information about income and expenditure items. It promotes accountability and prevents corrupt and sharp practices.
iii. Fees receipts:- It is issued to students as they pay fees while the duplicates is kept for auditor and inspectors.
iv. Cash Book:- It shows the receipts and payments of the school.
v. Ledger Book:- It is used to record all the debit and credit transacts of the school.
vi. Bank Reconciliation to Reconcile the School Transaction with the bank (to come into agreement)
vii. Stock Book:- It is used to keep the inventory of the landed property and other assets of the school with liabilities shown.
viii. I.O.U Book:- This is used to service short term financial assistance to staff, payable on payment of salary.
D). STAFF RECORDS:
i. Staff Time Book:- This is for staff attendance, it shows the tune each staff come to school (late corners cab be easily detected)
ii. Staff movement Book:- This is the record that indicate when staff move out of the school during school hours and when they returned.
iii. Staff Confidential Report: (ANNUAL EVALUATION REPORT FORM-APER FORM) This is used for staff promotion and reward.
iv. Staff Files: Each member of staff should have a personal file, which contain the record of service with proper references.
v. Staff List:- List of staff suppose to be kept including the school organization.
vi. Files on Subject matter in the accounts need to be kept
E). EJGENERAL RECORDS:
A school also need the following records:
i. Parents Teachers Association Minutes book
ii. Parents Teachers Association Account Book
iii. Board of Directors minutes Books
iv. Suggestion files and Box
v. Instruction Book or Internal Circular File
vi. Correspondence Files on various Subjects
IMPORTANCE OF RECORD KEEPING IN THE SCHOOLS
The importance of record keeping in schools according to Olgboye Cited in Olararenwaji I.T (2009:1) and Dibu Ojermde and Tukur (ed) (2005:27), include;
1. It tells the history of the school
2. It facilitates continuity in the school administration
3. It facilitates and enhance the provision of effective guidance and counseling service for students in the social career domains
4. Provides information needed on ex-students by higher and other related institution and employers of labour for admission or placement.
5. Facilitate the supply of information to parents or guardians for effective monitoring of the progress of their children in school or performance.
6. Provides data needed for planning and decision making by school authority
7. Provide’ a basis for the objective assessment of the state of teaching and learning in the school, including staff and students performance by supervisors and inspectors.
8. Provide information for the school community, the general public, employers, researchers for the advancement of knowledge.
9. It ensures that the headmaster keeps strictly to the education regulations.
10. School records can be used as reference materials for both the teachers and the administrators.
ABUSES OF SCHOOL RECORDS
Some time according to Aleiyideino, Sc et a! (2000:79) some school abuse records keeping by:
1. Non availability of records:- They do not keep such records and cannot produce same when the need arise.
2. Problem of storage:- Some school have these records but are not properly stored according to subject matter.
3. Ignorance on the part of head teachers:- Some head teachers are not even aware of the importance of records keeping in school or how to even keep these records.
4. Poor Supervision by Head teacher or supervisor:- Some Head teachers do not keep records because no body request for such records.
5. If the information given are false or incomplete, it cannot give us accurate information needed.
This means that we must know the importance of keeping records and with truthful and complete information This will enable our schools to be up to date and respond to any question or fill any form about our school without difficulties.
Olanrewaju, I.T (2008) Importance of Record keeping In School” being Paper Presented to the Department of PHE University of Ilorin PP 1-10.
2. Aleiyideini, SC et al (2002)”Record Keeping” in NTI (2002) School Management Course Book On Education pp 69-78
3. Eke E(2000)”School Administration and Management” In NTI (2000) education Cycle 4. PP 12-13
4. Dibu Ojerinde, 0.0 and Tukur, H (2005) “Record Keeping” Inspection manual in NTI PGDE by DLS. PP2 1-27.